I have been speaking about how the letter of James seems to refer to Paul’s letters in order to contradict them (as has extended been believed by scholars — going back at least to Martin Luther).  But as it turns out, I do not feel it is basically that straightforward.   I briefly pointed out this in an earlier post, but right here is the fuller scoop.   This once again is taken from my book Forgery and Counterforgery.   I should really remind you what I imply by these terms, “forgery” and “counterforgery.”

The term “forgery” is a technical term for a book that claims to be written by a well-known particular person who in truth did not create it.  (So “forgery” does NOT imply, in this context, some thing like “a created-up story.”  It refers particularly to the claim by an author — either explicit or implicit — to be an individual other than he is.)  A “counter-forgery” is a type of forgery — it refers to a forgery written in order to contradict the views identified precisely in an individual else’s forgery (no matter whether or not the counter-forger realized that the book he is opposing was forged or genuine).

I will be arguing that the letter of James does not oppose Paul.  It opposes letters *claiming* to be written by Paul but weren’t.  So it is a counter-forgery.   Here’s how I start off creating the case.


James as Independent of Paul

            Even even though James has picked up phrasing, ideas, contrasts, and Scriptural proofs from Paul, his actual position, as generally noted, may perhaps not be contradictory to Paul’s.  Accurate, he surely sounds contrary to Paul.  For James a particular person is justified by functions, not by faith alone for Paul a particular person is justified by faith not by performing the functions of the Law.  The dilemma is that Paul and James seem to imply diverse issues by each “faith” and “works.”

I do not have to have to deliver a lengthy disquisition on Paul’s use of the two words.   Faith, for Paul, refers to …

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The Close Connections of James and Paul