The Pentateuch, or books of Moses, are the primary 5 books discovered within the Outdated Testomony: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. These 5 books ascribed to Moses have a peculiar place within the construction of the Bible, and an order which is undeniably the order of the expertise of the individuals of God in all ages.
The Title “Pentateuch”
The time period “Pentateuch” doesn’t happen in Scripture, neither is it certainly identified when the textual content was thus separated into 5 elements: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. Presumably, that was accomplished by the LXX. translators. Some trendy critics communicate of a Hexateuch, introducing the Guide of Joshua as one of many group. However this guide is of a completely completely different character from the opposite books and has a distinct creator. It stands by itself as the primary of a sequence of historic books starting with the doorway of the Israelites into Canaan.
Abstract of the Pentateuch
Genesis is the guide of origins–of the start of life, and of destroy by way of sin. Its first phrase, “At first God,” is in hanging distinction with the tip, “In a coffin in Egypt.”
The English title, Genesis, is Greek in origin and comes from the phrase geneseos, which seems within the pre-Christian Greek translation (Septuagint) of two:4; 5:1. Relying on its context, the phrase can imply “start,” “family tree,” or “historical past of origin.” In each its Hebrew and Greek varieties, then, the normal title of Genesis appropriately describes its contents, since it’s primarily a guide of beginnings.
Genesis speaks of beginnings — of the heavens and the earth, of sunshine and darkness, of seas and skies, of land and vegetation, of solar and moon and stars, of sea and air and land animals, of human beings (made in God’s personal picture, the climax of his inventive exercise), of marriage and household, of society and civilization, of sin and redemption. The record may go on and on. A key phrase in Genesis is “account,” which additionally serves to divide the guide into its ten main elements (see Literary Options and Literary Define) and which incorporates such ideas as start, family tree, and historical past.
Exodus is the guide of redemption, the primary want of a ruined race.
“Exodus” is a Latin phrase derived from Greek Exodos, the identify given to the guide by those that translated it into Greek. The phrase means “exit,” “departure” (see Lk 9:31; Heb 11:22). The identify was retained by the Latin Vulgate, by the Jewish creator Philo (a recent of Christ) and by the Syriac model. In Hebrew the guide is known as after its first two phrases, we’elleh shemoth (“These are the names of”). The identical phrase happens in Ge 46:8, the place it likewise introduces a listing of the names of these Israelites “who went to Egypt with Jacob” (1:1). Thus Exodus was not supposed to exist individually however was regarded as a continuation of a story that started in Genesis and was accomplished in Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy.
Exodus lays a foundational theology wherein God reveals his identify, his attributes, his redemption, his legislation and the way he’s to be worshiped. It additionally experiences the appointment and work of Moses because the mediator of the Sinaitic covenant, describes the beginnings of the priesthood in Israel, defines the function of the prophet and relates how the traditional covenant relationship between God and his individuals (see notice on Genesis 17:2) got here underneath a brand new administration (the covenant given at Mount Sinai).
Leviticus is the guide of worship and communion, the correct train of the redeemed.
Leviticus receives its identify from the Septuagint (the pre-Christian Greek translation of the OT) and means “regarding the Levites.” Though Leviticus doesn’t deal solely with the particular duties of the Levites, it’s so named as a result of it considerations primarily the service of worship on the tabernacle, which was performed by the monks who had been the sons of Aaron, assisted by many from the remainder of the tribe of Levi. Exodus gave the instructions for constructing the tabernacle, and now Leviticus offers the legal guidelines and rules for worship there, together with directions on ceremonial cleanness, ethical legal guidelines, holy days, the Sabbath yr and the 12 months of Jubilee. These legal guidelines got, no less than for probably the most half, in the course of the yr that Israel camped at Mount Sinai when God directed Moses in organizing Israel’s worship, authorities, and navy forces. The guide of Numbers continues the historical past with preparations for shifting on from Sinai to Canaan.
Numbers speaks of the experiences of a pilgrim individuals, the redeemed passing by way of a hostile scene to a promised inheritance.
Numbers relates the story of Israel’s journey from Mount Sinai to the plains of Moab on the border of Canaan. A lot of its laws for individuals and monks is much like that in Exodus, Leviticus and Deuteronomy. The guide tells of the murmuring and revolt of God’s individuals and of their subsequent judgment. These whom God had redeemed from slavery in Egypt and with whom he had made a covenant at Mount Sinai responded not with religion, gratitude and obedience however with unbelief, ingratitude and repeated acts of revolt, which got here to excessive expression of their refusal to undertake the conquest of Canaan (ch. 14). The group of the redeemed forfeited their half within the promised land. They had been condemned to stay out their lives within the desert; solely their kids would benefit from the achievement of the promise that had initially been theirs.
Deuteronomy, retrospective and potential, is a guide of instruction for the redeemed about to enter that inheritance.
Deuteronomy locates Moses and the Israelites within the territory of Moab within the space the place the Jordan flows into the Lifeless Sea (1:5). As his closing act at this necessary time of transferring management to Joshua, Moses delivered his farewell addresses to arrange the individuals for his or her entrance into Canaan. In them, Moses emphasised the legal guidelines that had been particularly wanted at such a time, and he introduced them in a manner acceptable to the state of affairs. In distinction to the matter-of-fact narratives of Leviticus and Numbers, right here the phrases of Moses come to us from his coronary heart as this servant of the Lord presses God’s claims on his individuals Israel.
That Babylonian and Assyrian monuments comprise information bearing a grotesque resemblance to the majestic account of the creation and of the Flood is true, as additionally that these antedate Moses. However this confirms fairly than invalidates inspiration of the Mosaic account. Some custom of creation and the Flood would inevitably be handed down within the historic cradle of the race. Such a practice, following the order of all custom, would tackle grotesque and mythological options, and these abound within the Babylonian information.
Of necessity, subsequently, the primary process of inspiration could be to supplant the usually absurd and infantile traditions with a revelation of the true historical past, and such a historical past we discover in phrases of matchless grandeur, and in an order which, rightly understood, is totally scientific. Within the Pentateuch, subsequently, now we have a real and logical introduction to all the Bible; and, in kind, an epitome of the divine revelation.
Article from Scofield Reference Notes (1917) (Public Area)
For over 90 years individuals have relied on this reference work of their day by day examine of God’s Phrase. Written initially in 1909, C. I. Scofield’s intent was to supply a concise however full device that may meet the necessity of somebody simply starting to learn the Bible.